Chapter 1: Human Pre-History to The Early Civilizations


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Pre-AP Global Final Study Guide
Chapter 1: Human Pre-History to The Early Civilizations
Paleolithic (Old) Stone Age - Use of crude tools, hunting and gathering, erect stature, growth in brain capacity, cultures, spread of humans

- Homo Sapiens Sapiens - species from which all humans originated

Mesolithic (Middle) Stone Age - improvements in tool and weapon making, domestication of animals, sailing and fishing, population growth

Neolithic (New) Stone Age - birth of agriculture and civilization (Neolithic Revolution)

- increase is disease, development of crafts and sciences, pottery, weather patterns, metals

- Bronze Age - metal tools for farming

Civilization - economic surplus, divisions of labor, social hierarchy, inequality

Slash and Burn Agriculture - burning trees in one area, farming intensely for years, then moving away

Cuneiform - system of writing with wedge-like symbols developed in Middle East

- written history starts at civilization, not with nomads

Tigris-Euphrates Civilization - 3500 BCE

- Mesopotamia - “fertile crescent”, area by Tigris/Euprates

- Sumerians - developed on Persian Gulf

- math, astronomy, number system, cuneiform

- Ziggurats - large pyramid-shaped religious temples, animistic

- city-states, hierarchy

- threat of invasion

- Akkadians - kept Sumerian civilization intact

- Babylonians - conquered Sumer

- Hammurabi’s Code - rules and procedures, duties, punishments

Egyptian Civilization - 3000 BCE

- Pharaoh - Egyptian king, contact with Gods, pyramids built for him

- math and sciences

Indian/Chinese River Valley Civilization

- Indus River 2500 BCE

- Harappa and Monhejo Daro

- trading with Mesopotamia and Egypt

- running water, natural disasters

- Huanghe River 2000 BCE

- Chinese lore - birth of civilization

- well-organized state, irrigation, pottery, bronze, iron, language of ideographs

- Shang dynasty

Major Achievements

- alphabet, writing, wheel, horses, math, astronomy, time, calendar, monarchy, bureaucracy

- Phoenicians - 22 letter alphabet based on sounds

- Lydians - coin money

- Jews settle near Babylon

- monotheism, Torah, basis for Christianity and Islam
Chapter 2: Classical Civilization: China
Zhou Dynasty

- Northern China, displaced Shang

- alliances with regional princes, feudal system

- extends territory to Yangtze River Valley

- rice and wheat agriculture

- Mandate of Heaven

- unified religion, Mandarin language, and currency

- Confucius - code of political and social ethics

- collapses due to disloyalty and invasion

Qin Dynasty

- Qin Shi Huangdi - 1st emperor, former regional lord

- assumes power of feudal lords, reorganizes into larger provinces

- Strong military to south by sea

- Great Wall in north to protect against barbarians

- census for tax revenues, standardizes coin and measurements

- artisan class

- fierce and brutal ruler, frequent punishments and death penalties, high taxes, forced labor

- collapses when Qin Shi Huangdi dies

Han Dynasty

- established by peasant revolts, reduced punishments and taxes

- expanded empire to Korea, Indochina, Asia

- Wu Ti - enforcer of peace

- formal training of bureaucrats, Confucian Civil Service Exams

- Confucian shrines

- collapses with invasion of Huns

Political Institutions

- strengthened central authority and bureaucracy

- strong family institutions, patriarchal, ancestor worship

- single law and tax code

- Confucian Civil Service Exams

- strong military

- judicial system

Religion/Culture

- upper class emphasized good life on earth and faith to state and family

- tolerance of religious beliefs as long as no interference with state of mandate of heaven

- harmonious earthly life

- Yin Yang - universal balance, avoid excess

- Confucius - Kung Fuzi, teacher of political virtue, he himself was religious, but not religious teacher

- tradition, political life, respect for elders, moderation

- Analects - his ideas, The 5 Classics - inspirations for his ideas

- system of ethics

- Legalism - school of political thought that favored authoritarian state, human nature is evil

- Taoism - religious philosophy

- Dao - “the way” of nature

- founded by Laozi, Lao Tzu

- withdrawal and contemplation, frugal living, humility

- embraced by ruling classes

- Art: decorative, calligraphy, silks

- Sciences: astronomy, 365-day calendar, seismograph, medicine, music

Economy/Society

- gap between classes - literacy

- majority of people were peasants, few mean people (unskilled laborers, green scarf)

- economy based on farming (wheat and rice) and trade

- Technology: ox drawn plow, iron mining and tool making, water mills

- patriarchal society, Confucian ideals
Chapter 3: Classical India
Geography - open to influence from middle east and Mediterranean

- Alexander the Great - Persian leader; invaded India and increased Hellenistic influence

- Himalayan mountains make unity difficult

- Indus river valley and Ganges river valley - two agricultural areas

- trading/seafaring on sea coast/herding in the north

- hot climate; monsoons - torrential downpours critical for farming

Vedic/Epic Ages

- immigration of Aryans - indo-European nomads; Sanskrit - literary language of Aryans

- Mahabharata - India’s greatest epic poem; stories of battles, utopian society

- Upanishads- epic poems of religion and mysticism

Caste System

- Varnas - social classes emphasizing class differences

- Kshatriyas - warrior class

- Brahmans - priestly class

- Vaisyas - traders,, farmers, artisans

- Sudras - common laborers

- Dalits - untouchables (not really part of caste system)

Religion - spirituality of nature, afterlife, undying divine force, spawns Buddhism

Patterns of Rulers

- growth of political units, development of Sanskrit, increased trade

- 16 powerful regional-states - dominated by priests/warriors, constant warfare

- Chandragupta Maurya seizes power in Ganges - first leader of Mauryan dynasty

- large army, unifies India, government bureaucracy

- Ashoka Maurya - conquers S tip of India

- converts to Buddhism seeking dharma, increased roads, rest stops, increased trade

- Kushans - invade and rule for 10 years

- Gupta Empire - political stability, overturned by the Huns

- divine rule, demanding taxation, local ruler can govern under Gupta name, universal law code, and universities

Religion and Culture

- Samsara - wheel of rebirth

- Atman - soul

- Brahma - God; divine principle within everything worldly

- Ahimsa - respect for all life

- Hinduism

- largest religion in India

- no single founder

- encourages ritualism, ceremony, mysticism, worldly pleasure

- Karma - “action” or “deed”, law of moral responsibility

- Dharma - ethical duty based on divine order of reality

- tolerance of other religions

- Gurus - mystic leaders

- Brahma - diving principle within everything worldly

- Reincarnation - souls don’t die, but pass on to other life forms

- Yoga - “union”, allowing mind freedom to concentrate on divine spirit

- based on obligations of life

- Buddhism

- founded by Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha - enlightened one; stupas - shrines)

- accepted spirituality of Hinduism, but not caste, worldly things, etc.

- material world - warps humans; salvation through destruction of worldly self

- Nirvana - world beyond existence, void of suffering

- rejected by upper classes in India, spread to China, Shi Lanka, and Japan

- Cultural Tradition/Technology

- myths and folklore

- math and science

- gravity, rotations of earth, and zero

- medicine - bone setting, plastic surgery, vaccination

- chemistry, steel, iron, textiles, artisan guilds
Chapter 4: Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome
Early Peoples

- Monoans (Crete)  Mycenaeans (sea-traders)  Dorians (sea raiders)

Scholars

- recording history - Herodotus/Thucydides

- philosophy - sophists

- poetry/drama - tragedies (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripedes) vs. comedies (Aristophanies)
Greece

- Mycenae develops in S - influenced by Egypt

- strong city-states

autonomy, trade, written language based on Phoecians, Olympics

- Sparta - strong military aristocracy, many slaves

- Athens - diverse commercial state, artistic, intellectual

- two city-states cooperate to defeat attacking Persians

- Pericles - ideas on democracy, each person could participate in government

- Direct Democracy - government where major decisions are made by everyone

- assembly meets every ten days

- Peloponnesian Wars

- between Athens and Sparta for Greek dominance

- defeats both sides of resources

- Phillip II of Macedonia conquers Greece (succeeded by Alexander the Great)

- Hellenistic period - time where Greek culture merges with that of middle east

- Alexandria (Egypt) - center of trade

Rome

- conquers Greece

- first established a monarchy, but it was driven out by aristocrats

- Roman Republic - rule of few on behalf of many

- strong military

- Punic Wars

-against Cathage (Africa)

- defeat and destroy Carthage, extends Roman territory

- civil war breaks out because of unstable empire due to many military victories

- Julius Caesar comes to power - end of republic

- succeeded by Augustus Caesar

- Pax Romani

- Rome sacked by invaders

- Constantine - Roman empire, adopted Christianity in 313 - Edict of Milan

- Politics:

- senate - most important legislative body, composed of aristocrats

- 12 Tablets

- military conquests - roads, harbors, bridges, etc.

Religion and Culture

- derived from spirits of nature, little spirituality

- moral philosophy

- Aristotle - philosopher who stressed importance of moderation and balance

- Stoics - emphasized inner moral independence; personal discipline

- Socrates - Pupil of Aristotle, 3 perfect forms - true, good, beauty

- intellect

- Pythagoras - math and geometry

- Ptolemy - astronomy and planetary movement

- literature - Homer - Illiad and Odyssey

- architecture

- Doric - simple, Ionic - most common, Corinthian - most ornate

Economy and Society

- lack of grain-producing land

- better for grapes and olives

- grain colonies (Rome  Sicily/Africa; Greece  Middle East)
Chapter 5: Directions, Diversities, and Declines
Expansion/Integration

- China - centralized politics and political culture; planters

- Mediterranean - localization and diversity; common laws, extension of citizenship,

- India - Hinduism; the caste system

Other Civilizations

- Kush (upper Nile in Egypt)

- monarchy, hieroglyphics, iron-work

- conquers Egypt and is then conquered by Axum

- Japan

- extensive agricultural system, regional political organization

- Shintoism - Japanese religion, worship of political rulers and nature spirits (kami)

- N Europe

- Germany, England, and Scandinavia

- Slavic people in E Europe

- Olmec in Central America

- corn/potatoes, domesticated animals, calendar, spawn Mayan civilization

- Polynesian people in Fiji and Samoa

Decline in India and China

- Han in China and Gupta in India suffer invasions

- China - government corruption, increased taxes, Toist revolt, new diseases, unorganized chaos

- Sui dynasty re-established, succeeded by Tang

- revival of bureaucracy/Confucianism

- India - nomadic invasions from Asia

- Rajput - regional princes

- decline of Buddhism, Islam introduced

- Hinduism and the Caste System survive downfall

Decline/Fall of Rome

- declining population, difficulty maintaining an army (mercenaries), corrupt emperors, disease, financial difficulties, increased pleasure seeking in upper class, creation of manor-like feudal estates (provides self-sufficiency)

Attempts to revive

- Diocletion

- reconstructs political administration (tetriarchy), system of tax collection, government regulation of economy

- increased Christian persecutions

- Constantine

- capital at Constantinople, adopts Christianity as unifying force

- babarian invasions begin

- Germanic kingdoms established

- 476 - collapse

- East survives as Byzantine empire with Justinian (Codes; attempts to restore Rome, fails)

Middle East

- Parthinian Empire - Tigris-Euphrates region, military bureaucracy

- conquered by Sassanids - revive Persian culture, Christianity, Zoroastrianism

N Africa/S Mediterranean/N and W Europe

- regional kingdoms

- Coptic church (Bishop Augustine) in Egypt

Buddhism

- spreads throughout Asia

- expansion led by monks, growth of monasteries

- Bodhisattvas - obtaining nirvana through meditation, saints

- Mahayana Buddhism - “Great Vehicle”, Buddha = divine savior, increased organization

- opposed by Confucianism and Taoism

Christianity

- Jesus of Nazareth, emphasis on afterlife

- adopts Roman ideas on organization

- missionary activity

- theology - Augustine

- monasticism - Benedict

- spreads throughout Africa, Europe, and Middle East

Islam - major rival of Christianity
Chapter 6: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam
Islam - “submission”, self-surrender to Allah

- Muslims - followers of Muhammah and Islam

- Qur’an - holy book

- Muhammad - nomadic clan leader

Clans

- necessary for survival

- councils

- shykhs - clan leaders

-rivalries over land rights, code of chivalry

- prevented Arab unity

Trade Cities

- Mecca

- mountainous region along Red Sea, site of Ka’ba, politics dominated by Umayyad clan

- Medina

- originally known as Yathrib, est. in an oasis, politics of 2 bedouin and 3 Jewish clans

Religion and Culture

- Bedouin women

- traced lineage through, cared for kids, no veils

- still patriarchal society

- isolation and poverty = underdeveloped culture

- pre-Islamic religion based on polytheism and animism

Birth of Islam

- Birth of Muhammad in Quraysh clan

- powerful, respected clan

- Muhammad works as a merchant in Mecca

- receives first revelation from Allah through Angel Gabriel

- Once following grows, Muhammad receives threats because of his power

- Hijra - flight to Medina

- brings peace to Medina, but warfare breaks out as Muhammad is still seen as a threat

- Medina and Muhammad victorious

Islam

- monotheistic religion, rigid, uncompromising, Allah and the individual

- Umma - community of the faithful

- provides unity

- accepts the teachings of Christianity and Judaism, but Islam is a refinement of them

- 5 Pillars

- statement of belief, prayer, fasting (Ramadan), Almsgiving (Zakat), pilgrimage (Hijj)

Politics of Islam

- problems of succession arise after death of Muhammad

- Abu Bakr selected as caliph

- unites Arab armies, anticipation of military victories and spoils

- Victories result in collapse of the Sasanian empire

- join up with Arabs, Copts, and Nestorians to try and defeat the Byzantine empire

- Byzantines are weakened, but never defeated

- Muslims conquer Syria, W Iraq, Palestine, Egypt

Sunni-Shi’a Split

- 3rd Muslim caliph, Uthmad Umayyad is assassinated

- Ali is proclaimed 4th caliph

- Umayyads reject Ali’s rule  warafare

- Umayyad’s select Mu’awiya caliph in Jerusalem

- Ali assassinated, son Hasan renounces claim to caliphate

- Sunnis - supporters of Umayyads

- Shi’as - supporters of Ali

Umayyad Emperium

- Muslim navies dominate Mediterranean Sea, reach NW India

- empire rivals Rome in size

- moves capital city to Damascus after death of Uthman

- only Muslim Arabs were considered first class citizens

Converts/People of the Book

- mawali - converts to Muslim

- payed Jizya tax

- no spoils from military conquest

- dhimmi - people of the book, Jews and Christians

- eventually incorporated all non-Muslims

Family and Gender Roles

- equality of men and women in front of Allah

- Muhammad’s wives and daughters played a crucial role in compiling Qur’an

Umayyad Decline

- addiction to luxury, increasing size of harem  sparks revolts

- Abbasid party attacks Umayyad armies

- assassinate most remaining members of the Umayyad clan

Early Abbasid Empire

- staunch Sunnis  less tolerant of Shi’as and mawali

- build new capital at Baghdad

- claim absolute rule over Islamic faith

- bureaucracy with wazir - chief administrator

- eventually grant equal rights to converts

Commercial Boom

- increase in trade between Africa, Mediterranean, and China

- increases wealth, better hospitals, increased craftsmanship, slavery

- emergence of Ayan - minority landed elite classes

- majority of people become sharecroppers

Islamic Learning

- advances in math, philosophy

- translated ideas from Greek and Latin to Arabic
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