Chapter 1: Human Pre-History to The Early Civilizations

download 183.61 Kb.
jenengChapter 1: Human Pre-History to The Early Civilizations
KoleksiDokumen > Astronomi > Dokumen
  1   2   3   4
Pre-AP Global Final Study Guide
Chapter 1: Human Pre-History to The Early Civilizations
Paleolithic (Old) Stone Age - Use of crude tools, hunting and gathering, erect stature, growth in brain capacity, cultures, spread of humans

- Homo Sapiens Sapiens - species from which all humans originated

Mesolithic (Middle) Stone Age - improvements in tool and weapon making, domestication of animals, sailing and fishing, population growth

Neolithic (New) Stone Age - birth of agriculture and civilization (Neolithic Revolution)

- increase is disease, development of crafts and sciences, pottery, weather patterns, metals

- Bronze Age - metal tools for farming

Civilization - economic surplus, divisions of labor, social hierarchy, inequality

Slash and Burn Agriculture - burning trees in one area, farming intensely for years, then moving away

Cuneiform - system of writing with wedge-like symbols developed in Middle East

- written history starts at civilization, not with nomads

Tigris-Euphrates Civilization - 3500 BCE

- Mesopotamia - “fertile crescent”, area by Tigris/Euprates

- Sumerians - developed on Persian Gulf

- math, astronomy, number system, cuneiform

- Ziggurats - large pyramid-shaped religious temples, animistic

- city-states, hierarchy

- threat of invasion

- Akkadians - kept Sumerian civilization intact

- Babylonians - conquered Sumer

- Hammurabi’s Code - rules and procedures, duties, punishments

Egyptian Civilization - 3000 BCE

- Pharaoh - Egyptian king, contact with Gods, pyramids built for him

- math and sciences

Indian/Chinese River Valley Civilization

- Indus River 2500 BCE

- Harappa and Monhejo Daro

- trading with Mesopotamia and Egypt

- running water, natural disasters

- Huanghe River 2000 BCE

- Chinese lore - birth of civilization

- well-organized state, irrigation, pottery, bronze, iron, language of ideographs

- Shang dynasty

Major Achievements

- alphabet, writing, wheel, horses, math, astronomy, time, calendar, monarchy, bureaucracy

- Phoenicians - 22 letter alphabet based on sounds

- Lydians - coin money

- Jews settle near Babylon

- monotheism, Torah, basis for Christianity and Islam
Chapter 2: Classical Civilization: China
Zhou Dynasty

- Northern China, displaced Shang

- alliances with regional princes, feudal system

- extends territory to Yangtze River Valley

- rice and wheat agriculture

- Mandate of Heaven

- unified religion, Mandarin language, and currency

- Confucius - code of political and social ethics

- collapses due to disloyalty and invasion

Qin Dynasty

- Qin Shi Huangdi - 1st emperor, former regional lord

- assumes power of feudal lords, reorganizes into larger provinces

- Strong military to south by sea

- Great Wall in north to protect against barbarians

- census for tax revenues, standardizes coin and measurements

- artisan class

- fierce and brutal ruler, frequent punishments and death penalties, high taxes, forced labor

- collapses when Qin Shi Huangdi dies

Han Dynasty

- established by peasant revolts, reduced punishments and taxes

- expanded empire to Korea, Indochina, Asia

- Wu Ti - enforcer of peace

- formal training of bureaucrats, Confucian Civil Service Exams

- Confucian shrines

- collapses with invasion of Huns

Political Institutions

- strengthened central authority and bureaucracy

- strong family institutions, patriarchal, ancestor worship

- single law and tax code

- Confucian Civil Service Exams

- strong military

- judicial system


- upper class emphasized good life on earth and faith to state and family

- tolerance of religious beliefs as long as no interference with state of mandate of heaven

- harmonious earthly life

- Yin Yang - universal balance, avoid excess

- Confucius - Kung Fuzi, teacher of political virtue, he himself was religious, but not religious teacher

- tradition, political life, respect for elders, moderation

- Analects - his ideas, The 5 Classics - inspirations for his ideas

- system of ethics

- Legalism - school of political thought that favored authoritarian state, human nature is evil

- Taoism - religious philosophy

- Dao - “the way” of nature

- founded by Laozi, Lao Tzu

- withdrawal and contemplation, frugal living, humility

- embraced by ruling classes

- Art: decorative, calligraphy, silks

- Sciences: astronomy, 365-day calendar, seismograph, medicine, music


- gap between classes - literacy

- majority of people were peasants, few mean people (unskilled laborers, green scarf)

- economy based on farming (wheat and rice) and trade

- Technology: ox drawn plow, iron mining and tool making, water mills

- patriarchal society, Confucian ideals
Chapter 3: Classical India
Geography - open to influence from middle east and Mediterranean

- Alexander the Great - Persian leader; invaded India and increased Hellenistic influence

- Himalayan mountains make unity difficult

- Indus river valley and Ganges river valley - two agricultural areas

- trading/seafaring on sea coast/herding in the north

- hot climate; monsoons - torrential downpours critical for farming

Vedic/Epic Ages

- immigration of Aryans - indo-European nomads; Sanskrit - literary language of Aryans

- Mahabharata - India’s greatest epic poem; stories of battles, utopian society

- Upanishads- epic poems of religion and mysticism

Caste System

- Varnas - social classes emphasizing class differences

- Kshatriyas - warrior class

- Brahmans - priestly class

- Vaisyas - traders,, farmers, artisans

- Sudras - common laborers

- Dalits - untouchables (not really part of caste system)

Religion - spirituality of nature, afterlife, undying divine force, spawns Buddhism

Patterns of Rulers

- growth of political units, development of Sanskrit, increased trade

- 16 powerful regional-states - dominated by priests/warriors, constant warfare

- Chandragupta Maurya seizes power in Ganges - first leader of Mauryan dynasty

- large army, unifies India, government bureaucracy

- Ashoka Maurya - conquers S tip of India

- converts to Buddhism seeking dharma, increased roads, rest stops, increased trade

- Kushans - invade and rule for 10 years

- Gupta Empire - political stability, overturned by the Huns

- divine rule, demanding taxation, local ruler can govern under Gupta name, universal law code, and universities

Religion and Culture

- Samsara - wheel of rebirth

- Atman - soul

- Brahma - God; divine principle within everything worldly

- Ahimsa - respect for all life

- Hinduism

- largest religion in India

- no single founder

- encourages ritualism, ceremony, mysticism, worldly pleasure

- Karma - “action” or “deed”, law of moral responsibility

- Dharma - ethical duty based on divine order of reality

- tolerance of other religions

- Gurus - mystic leaders

- Brahma - diving principle within everything worldly

- Reincarnation - souls don’t die, but pass on to other life forms

- Yoga - “union”, allowing mind freedom to concentrate on divine spirit

- based on obligations of life

- Buddhism

- founded by Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha - enlightened one; stupas - shrines)

- accepted spirituality of Hinduism, but not caste, worldly things, etc.

- material world - warps humans; salvation through destruction of worldly self

- Nirvana - world beyond existence, void of suffering

- rejected by upper classes in India, spread to China, Shi Lanka, and Japan

- Cultural Tradition/Technology

- myths and folklore

- math and science

- gravity, rotations of earth, and zero

- medicine - bone setting, plastic surgery, vaccination

- chemistry, steel, iron, textiles, artisan guilds
Chapter 4: Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome
Early Peoples

- Monoans (Crete)  Mycenaeans (sea-traders)  Dorians (sea raiders)


- recording history - Herodotus/Thucydides

- philosophy - sophists

- poetry/drama - tragedies (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripedes) vs. comedies (Aristophanies)

- Mycenae develops in S - influenced by Egypt

- strong city-states

autonomy, trade, written language based on Phoecians, Olympics

- Sparta - strong military aristocracy, many slaves

- Athens - diverse commercial state, artistic, intellectual

- two city-states cooperate to defeat attacking Persians

- Pericles - ideas on democracy, each person could participate in government

- Direct Democracy - government where major decisions are made by everyone

- assembly meets every ten days

- Peloponnesian Wars

- between Athens and Sparta for Greek dominance

- defeats both sides of resources

- Phillip II of Macedonia conquers Greece (succeeded by Alexander the Great)

- Hellenistic period - time where Greek culture merges with that of middle east

- Alexandria (Egypt) - center of trade


- conquers Greece

- first established a monarchy, but it was driven out by aristocrats

- Roman Republic - rule of few on behalf of many

- strong military

- Punic Wars

-against Cathage (Africa)

- defeat and destroy Carthage, extends Roman territory

- civil war breaks out because of unstable empire due to many military victories

- Julius Caesar comes to power - end of republic

- succeeded by Augustus Caesar

- Pax Romani

- Rome sacked by invaders

- Constantine - Roman empire, adopted Christianity in 313 - Edict of Milan

- Politics:

- senate - most important legislative body, composed of aristocrats

- 12 Tablets

- military conquests - roads, harbors, bridges, etc.

Religion and Culture

- derived from spirits of nature, little spirituality

- moral philosophy

- Aristotle - philosopher who stressed importance of moderation and balance

- Stoics - emphasized inner moral independence; personal discipline

- Socrates - Pupil of Aristotle, 3 perfect forms - true, good, beauty

- intellect

- Pythagoras - math and geometry

- Ptolemy - astronomy and planetary movement

- literature - Homer - Illiad and Odyssey

- architecture

- Doric - simple, Ionic - most common, Corinthian - most ornate

Economy and Society

- lack of grain-producing land

- better for grapes and olives

- grain colonies (Rome  Sicily/Africa; Greece  Middle East)
Chapter 5: Directions, Diversities, and Declines

- China - centralized politics and political culture; planters

- Mediterranean - localization and diversity; common laws, extension of citizenship,

- India - Hinduism; the caste system

Other Civilizations

- Kush (upper Nile in Egypt)

- monarchy, hieroglyphics, iron-work

- conquers Egypt and is then conquered by Axum

- Japan

- extensive agricultural system, regional political organization

- Shintoism - Japanese religion, worship of political rulers and nature spirits (kami)

- N Europe

- Germany, England, and Scandinavia

- Slavic people in E Europe

- Olmec in Central America

- corn/potatoes, domesticated animals, calendar, spawn Mayan civilization

- Polynesian people in Fiji and Samoa

Decline in India and China

- Han in China and Gupta in India suffer invasions

- China - government corruption, increased taxes, Toist revolt, new diseases, unorganized chaos

- Sui dynasty re-established, succeeded by Tang

- revival of bureaucracy/Confucianism

- India - nomadic invasions from Asia

- Rajput - regional princes

- decline of Buddhism, Islam introduced

- Hinduism and the Caste System survive downfall

Decline/Fall of Rome

- declining population, difficulty maintaining an army (mercenaries), corrupt emperors, disease, financial difficulties, increased pleasure seeking in upper class, creation of manor-like feudal estates (provides self-sufficiency)

Attempts to revive

- Diocletion

- reconstructs political administration (tetriarchy), system of tax collection, government regulation of economy

- increased Christian persecutions

- Constantine

- capital at Constantinople, adopts Christianity as unifying force

- babarian invasions begin

- Germanic kingdoms established

- 476 - collapse

- East survives as Byzantine empire with Justinian (Codes; attempts to restore Rome, fails)

Middle East

- Parthinian Empire - Tigris-Euphrates region, military bureaucracy

- conquered by Sassanids - revive Persian culture, Christianity, Zoroastrianism

N Africa/S Mediterranean/N and W Europe

- regional kingdoms

- Coptic church (Bishop Augustine) in Egypt


- spreads throughout Asia

- expansion led by monks, growth of monasteries

- Bodhisattvas - obtaining nirvana through meditation, saints

- Mahayana Buddhism - “Great Vehicle”, Buddha = divine savior, increased organization

- opposed by Confucianism and Taoism


- Jesus of Nazareth, emphasis on afterlife

- adopts Roman ideas on organization

- missionary activity

- theology - Augustine

- monasticism - Benedict

- spreads throughout Africa, Europe, and Middle East

Islam - major rival of Christianity
Chapter 6: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam
Islam - “submission”, self-surrender to Allah

- Muslims - followers of Muhammah and Islam

- Qur’an - holy book

- Muhammad - nomadic clan leader


- necessary for survival

- councils

- shykhs - clan leaders

-rivalries over land rights, code of chivalry

- prevented Arab unity

Trade Cities

- Mecca

- mountainous region along Red Sea, site of Ka’ba, politics dominated by Umayyad clan

- Medina

- originally known as Yathrib, est. in an oasis, politics of 2 bedouin and 3 Jewish clans

Religion and Culture

- Bedouin women

- traced lineage through, cared for kids, no veils

- still patriarchal society

- isolation and poverty = underdeveloped culture

- pre-Islamic religion based on polytheism and animism

Birth of Islam

- Birth of Muhammad in Quraysh clan

- powerful, respected clan

- Muhammad works as a merchant in Mecca

- receives first revelation from Allah through Angel Gabriel

- Once following grows, Muhammad receives threats because of his power

- Hijra - flight to Medina

- brings peace to Medina, but warfare breaks out as Muhammad is still seen as a threat

- Medina and Muhammad victorious


- monotheistic religion, rigid, uncompromising, Allah and the individual

- Umma - community of the faithful

- provides unity

- accepts the teachings of Christianity and Judaism, but Islam is a refinement of them

- 5 Pillars

- statement of belief, prayer, fasting (Ramadan), Almsgiving (Zakat), pilgrimage (Hijj)

Politics of Islam

- problems of succession arise after death of Muhammad

- Abu Bakr selected as caliph

- unites Arab armies, anticipation of military victories and spoils

- Victories result in collapse of the Sasanian empire

- join up with Arabs, Copts, and Nestorians to try and defeat the Byzantine empire

- Byzantines are weakened, but never defeated

- Muslims conquer Syria, W Iraq, Palestine, Egypt

Sunni-Shi’a Split

- 3rd Muslim caliph, Uthmad Umayyad is assassinated

- Ali is proclaimed 4th caliph

- Umayyads reject Ali’s rule  warafare

- Umayyad’s select Mu’awiya caliph in Jerusalem

- Ali assassinated, son Hasan renounces claim to caliphate

- Sunnis - supporters of Umayyads

- Shi’as - supporters of Ali

Umayyad Emperium

- Muslim navies dominate Mediterranean Sea, reach NW India

- empire rivals Rome in size

- moves capital city to Damascus after death of Uthman

- only Muslim Arabs were considered first class citizens

Converts/People of the Book

- mawali - converts to Muslim

- payed Jizya tax

- no spoils from military conquest

- dhimmi - people of the book, Jews and Christians

- eventually incorporated all non-Muslims

Family and Gender Roles

- equality of men and women in front of Allah

- Muhammad’s wives and daughters played a crucial role in compiling Qur’an

Umayyad Decline

- addiction to luxury, increasing size of harem  sparks revolts

- Abbasid party attacks Umayyad armies

- assassinate most remaining members of the Umayyad clan

Early Abbasid Empire

- staunch Sunnis  less tolerant of Shi’as and mawali

- build new capital at Baghdad

- claim absolute rule over Islamic faith

- bureaucracy with wazir - chief administrator

- eventually grant equal rights to converts

Commercial Boom

- increase in trade between Africa, Mediterranean, and China

- increases wealth, better hospitals, increased craftsmanship, slavery

- emergence of Ayan - minority landed elite classes

- majority of people become sharecroppers

Islamic Learning

- advances in math, philosophy

- translated ideas from Greek and Latin to Arabic
  1   2   3   4

Share ing jaringan sosial


Activity: Complete worksheet “Mesopotamia” and “Why did Early Civilizations...

The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race

05. 01 History of Interpolation After reading this chapter, you should...

Early medieval history

This is my collection about the early history of Hong Kong astronomical...

The History of Freemasonry by Albert Gallatin Mackey Chapter 44 The Leland Manuscript

Chapter 3 Gravity and the Rise of Modern Astronomy chapter outline

Artigo: a observação astronômica na América pré-colombiana

An Analysis of Writing and Postwriting Group Collaboration in Middle School Pre-Algebra

Extraterrestrial Civilizations


Nalika Nyalin materi nyedhiyani link © 2000-2017
.. Home